What is Roman Law. Its role in the legal studies. Reception of Roman law and its doctrine. Presentation of the course. Roman definitions of law, partitions of law and basic legal notions. ius civile, ius honorarium, ius gentium, ius naturale.
Reading: R.W. Leage & A. M. Prichard, Roman Private Law, Part 1 (Outline of the History of Roman Law); E. Levy, Natural Law in Roman Thought; F. Schulz, Prinzipien des römischen Rechts: Isolierung.
Sources: D. 1.1.1 and Glossa, G.1.1-7; I. 1.1.1., PDF
A) Archaic Law. The Law of Twelve Tables. B) Sources of Pre-classical Law: The Birth of the Jurisprudence. The Edict.
Reading: R.W. Leage & A. M. Prichard, Roman Private Law, Part 1 (Outline of the History)
Sources: Law of Twelve Table
Sum up: Pomponius' Enchiridion
A) Classical Roman Law: New forms of law creation. Imperial constitutions, decrees of the senate; jurisprudence and the massive growth of the body of law. B) Attempts at Ordination of the whole Body of Law. Postclassical legal collections. Justinian and his codification.
Divisions of Persons. Citizens vs. Non-Citizens. Free vs. Slaves. Autonomous vs. Dependent. Roman Familia. Pater Familias and his Power.
Reading: J. A. Crook, Patria potestas, F. Schulz, Part II, chapter I: Single Persons; chapter II: Parents and Children
Sources: G.1.9-12; 48-52; 82-107
Dominica potestas vs. patria potestas. Slavery. The use of slaves and subjects in transactions: Pater familias' liability for his subjects. The «system» of «actiones adiecticiae qualitatis». Introduction to the Formulary procedure. Cases. Noxal Liability. Cases.
Reading: F. Schulz, as above. G. 4.66-81 and De Zulueta, Commentary on Gai Inst. 4.66-81. Cf. also Schulz, Part I (Law of Actions) as well as the presentation on the Edict.
The notion of Guardianship. Protection of minors. Women and their Standing in Law.
The purpose of marriage. Various models of marriage in History. The originality and the aim of the Roman constuction. Affectio Maritalis. Pre-requisites of Marriage. Modern Implications
Reading: F. Schulz, Classical Roman Law: The Husband and Wife; The Principles of Roman Law: Humanitas. Consider as well the institution of marriage as such, its format in the past and nowadays.
The notion of Property. Real and personal rights and their protection. Rei Vindicatio. Actio Publiciana. Types of Property. The action: legitimation. Division of Things. Aquisition of Property and Possession. Derivative Modes. Original Modes.
Reading: F. Schulz, Classical Roman Law:Property; Possession Property
Servitudes. Usufruct. Pledge and Mortgage
Reading: F. Schulz, Classical Roman Law
18th of February, 3.00 pm, Adam Mickiewicz Audytorium. Open book exam consisting of:1 source text for a guided analysis; 1-2 cases loosely based on the source text.
The notion of Succession. 'Natural' vs. Succession by Will. Succession based on the Law of XII Tables. Early Roman Wills. How to circumvent the Limitations? Praetorian vs. Civil Succession Types of Wills. Testamentary Provisions in Detail. The Will of Kronion.
Mock-exam 2010 solved.
The Origins and the Division thereof. The Genesis (From nexum, fiducia, stipulatio & talio to Contractual and Delictual Liability). A unique Roman Invention? The Sources. The Contents and the Conditions thereof. Impossibility. No Obligation in favour of the 3rd Party. Dare-Facere-Praestare. Divisibility and Indivisibility.
The Rite. The Advantages thereof. Formal and Abstracts Acts Revisited (Abstractiveness vs. Causality. Conditions). Presumptions. Perfomance of Certain/Uncertain. Actions. Abstract Legal Transactions Revisited.
Real Contracts in General: Ways of Contract Making, the Genesis. Similarities and Differences: mutuum (loan for consumption) vs. depositum (deposit), pignus (pledge) commodatum (loan for use). Liability of the Debtor. Custodia Introduced. Mutuum and Depositum Irregulare : how 'Real' Are They? (Fictitious Transfer).
Collaterals/Securities: Types (Personal vs. Real). Modes of Contracting. Modalities.
Necessary Components of the Transaction: Price and Merchandise. The Problem of Price (the Difference between Sabinians and Proculeians and the Reasons thereof). Consent as the Basis of the Contract. Risk vs. Duty to Safekeep. Good Faith as the Basis of Liability. Seller's Liability for Defects. Additional Pacts and the Versality of the Contract.
Necessary Components of the Transaction: Rent and Merchandise. Likeness to Sale. Types of Locatio-Conductio. The Management of Risk. Contractual Liability in General (dolus-fraud : culpa-negligence : custodia-safekeeping : vis - 'force majeure'). Maritime transport, the Function of Receptum nautarum (Warranty of the Capitan).Lex Rhodia de iactu.
Gratuitous Services in the Roman Word. Liability of the Mandatary (Fraud or Fraud + Gross Negligence?) and of the Mandator. Exceeding the Terms of Mandate. Silent (Implied) Mandate. Mandate for the Sole Benefit of the Mandatary. Mandatum Qualificatum. Death and Mandate.
The notion of Quasi-contracts and their Division. Agency without Commission: The Origins. The Actions. Liability of the Agent without Mandate. The Basis of Master's Liability: Utility.Other Examples of Liability Similar to the Contractual: Bequests, Co-ownership, Guardianship.
A) The notion of solutio indebiti. Undue Payment and Unjustified Enrichment: the Differences. Condictio and rei vindicatio. Traditio and the Transfer of Ownership: 'close' and 'remote' cause (causa acquirendi/causa retinendi). condictio ob turpem causam. B) Beyond the numerus clausus of Roman contracts: the role of stipulatio. Informal pacts and their influence on legal transactions based on strict law and on good faith. exceptio pacti. contractus reales innominati.
Liability for Iniuria in the Archaic Times. Aquilian Plebiscite and its Origins. The Statute and its Defects. Interpretation of Damnum. Directness of Damage.
Unlawfulness in the Original Statute: Strict Liability. Exemptions (Defences?) from Liability: Lawfulness, Force-majeure and Necessity, Impossibility to Reason, Contributory Negligence of the Victim, Assuming of Risk. Self-Defence and its Limits. Unlawfulness in Praeclassical and Classical Period (Liability Based on Negligence): Duty of Care in Roman Law?. The Character of the Action. Contractual vs. Delictual Liability. Requisites for the Aquilian and Analogous Action (A Sum-up). Pauperies. Homework x 2
The Traffic Accident Case Solved. Corruption of Slave. Deceit and Duress.
Liability for the Damages inflicted by the Others (Edictum against the Ship-Captains, Inn- and Stable-Keepers; Edict on Pouring and Throwing Things). Liability for Damage Concluded.
Handbooks/Materials: Basic Handbook: F. Schultz, Classical Roman Law, Oxford 1956 and handouts distributed during classes.
Evaluation: Work at class and exam. Two mock-exams foreseen in preparation for the final exam. Final exam consists of two parts, written and oral. Erasmus students who are in Warsaw only 5 months may attend only one semester of classes and be examined of this part of the material.
Formulary Procedure. The Formula and its Parts. Pluris Petitio. Divisions of Actions
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